For over 10 million Americans, osteoporosis presents a chronic, degenerative, and complex problem, with few current therapeutic options to promote bone growth. A team of researchers from Loma Linda University and the Jerry L. Pettis Memorial VA Medical Center in California have reversed the bone-degrading disease of osteoporosis in an animal model using hematopoietic stem cells [HSCs]. The research offers yet another development in our current understanding and capability for practical application in the stem cell field. Now, after having identified specific growth factors related to bone growth and proliferation, stem cell therapy is thought to holds great promise in reversing bone weakness and ultimately, morbidity and mortality.
Bioengineers from the University of California, San Diego, have identified a mechanism by which stem cell differentiation is regulated by the exertion of mechanical pressure. Using optical tweezers to apply mechanical force to stem cells, the researchers, led by Dr. Yingxiao Wang, observed the release of calcium ions, which are critical in the cellular communication required for stem cell differentiation. Dr. Wang’s team concluded that the forces of a stem cell’s environment, such as the tension inside the jaw, can promote the cell’s maturation into stiff tissue like bone or cartilage.
In a recently published study from the Queen Mary University of London, scientists discovered a connection between the length of cilia [hair-like projections for cell movement] on stem cells and their proclivity towards differentiating into fat cells. By restricting the elongation of stem cell cilia, the researchers were able to impede on the formation of new fat cells.
The New York-based startup Epibone intends to begin human testing on a procedure that will utilize stem cells to regenerate living bone tissue. The researchers, originally from Columbia University, will apply autologous [the patient’s own] stem cells to nanofiber scaffolding of the desired size and shape and direct the stem cells to differentiate into a physical and genetic replica of the patient’s own bone.
Topics: osteoporosis, limbs, Fingers, Jaw, Bone loss, stemsaveblog, Joints, Bone, Debilitating Diseases, Arthritis, Stemcells, Knee, hip, autologousstemcells, cartilage, grants, Mandibular bone, young stem cells
Medical researchers from Keele University and Nottingham University have integrated remote controlled magnetic nanoparticles to incite the differentiation of stem cells into new bone tissue for the treatment of bone diseases, disorders, and injuries. In pre-clinical trials, the nanoparticles were coated with proteins that stimulate the stem cells, and then delivered directly to the damaged tissue via an external magnetic field.
In recent clinical trials, researchers at the National University of Ireland Galway have successfully utilized adult stem cells to treat patients with osteoarthritis. The treatment involves recovering the patients’ own [autologous] stem cells and then injecting the stem cells into cartilage to stimulate the regeneration of lost tissue.
Topics: osteoporosis, Fingers, Phase III, Bone loss, stemsaveblog, Joints, knee replacement, clinical trials, Bone, Debilitating Diseases, Arthritis, Stemcells, Feet, Rheumatoid Arthritis, Hip replacement, Knee, hip, autologousstemcells, cartilage, Cartilage degradation
Researchers at the National Institute for Dental and Craniofacial Research have developed a method of utilizing autologous [the patient’s own] dental stem cells to regenerate damaged or decayed teeth. In an animal model, as well as human cells in vitro [in a lab], the scientists treated the damaged teeth with low-intensity lasers, which prompted the stem cells located in the dental pulp to differentiate and grow into new, healthy dentin tissue.
Doctors and Scientist at the Southampton General Hospital have successfully completed a hip transplant by using a titanium socket and a bone scaffold loaded with skeletal stem cells. The team, led by orthopedic surgeon Douglas Dunlap, 3D printed the titanium implant, and then added the bone graft filled with stem cells to the pelvis to encourage bone regrowth behind and around the metal replacement.
A team of medical researchers at Saint Luc University Clinic have developed a method of repairing bones utilizing autologous [the patient’s own] stem cells. The process involves harvesting the stem cells from the patient, differentiating the stem cells in-vitro to grow bone, pairing the cells with a scaffolding matrix and then molding the material to repair damaged or diseased bone within the patient.
Researchers from Karolinska Institutet’s Department of Clinical Sciences have developed an application for mesenchymal stem cells [the same type found in Dental Stem Cells] to provide treatment for children born with osteogenesis imperfecta. The researchers utilized the unique properties of MSCs to facilitate and improve bone tissue formation through in utero transplantations.