In a phase 1 clinical trial, a novel mesenchymal stem cell [MSCs] therapy was successfully applied to treat often fatal steroid resistant graft versus host disease [GVHD]. A significant concern with life-saving organ and bone marrow transplants is the risk of immune rejection. GVHD occurs when the transplanted immune cells attack the patient’s body, with patients typically suffering from painful ulcers all over the body, and in extreme cases, death. The therapy, created by Cynata Therapeutics, is called CYP-001, and utilizes mesenchymal stem cells [the same type of cells found in teeth] to treat steroid resistant GVHD. This treatment gives hope to thousands of patients around the world receiving bone marrow transplants and risking the extremely fatal immune response.
Phase III clinical trials were announced for an autologous [the patient’s own] stem cell treatment to restore blood vessels and reestablish blood flow following critical limb ischemia (CLI). Ischemia is a lack of blood to an area in the body, typically due to a blood clot, and is common in diabetics and other patients whose conditions result in damage or clotting in the blood vessels. In extreme cases, ischemia can lead to painful ulcers, gangrene and even amputation, given that cells in the area of decreased blood flow begin to die rapidly. The treatment seeks to facilitate re-vascularization through the administration of both blood stem cells and endothelial progenitor cells, which form the walls of blood vessels.
For the past 6 years, dentistry has consistently ranked in the top three of U.S. News and World Report’s annual job review. This year dentistry took the #1 healthcare rank and the #2 overall rank (Overall Rank – 2013: #1 2014: #3 2015: #1 2016: #2 2017: #1 2018: #2.) Dentists continue to enjoy an extremely low unemployment rate (0.4%), high job satisfaction and above average flexibility of hours. Though becoming a Dentist is a rigorous academic process; with undergraduate studies in the sciences and mathematics, followed by years of Dental School and residency, the profession remains particularly rewarding. Dentists are also playing a key role in the future of medicine by contributing to regenerative treatments through stem cell banking. Helping extract teeth for stem cell banking puts Dentists on the cusp of cutting edge breakthroughs and treatments, helping their patients acquire biological insurance in the form of stem cells and safeguarding their families against future trauma and illnesses.
Researchers at Cornell University are working on a stem cell-infused implant that could cure insulin deficiency for diabetics. Type I diabetes results from inadequate or malfunctioning insulin-producing beta cells in the islets of the pancreas, as well as an autoimmune response that attacks the body's insulin-producing cells. This treatment utilizes stem cells and directs them to differentiate into these cells. As opposed to daily insulin injections, the treatment is designed to provide a long-term solution that eliminates the need to constantly monitor blood sugar. It utilizes a naturally derived hydrogel to create a thread packed with stem cells induced to become pancreatic islets which is then implanted into the abdomen. Additionally, the treatment addresses what no other current treatment addresses: the body’s immune system attacking the insulin-producing cells. Encasing the cells protects them from the autoimmune response, increasing their efficacy and lifespan.
A clinical trial has shown that autologous [the patient’s own] stem cell infusions can accelerate improvements in motor function of children with cerebral palsy. Cerebral palsy occurs when the brain is damaged either before or during birth and has varying levels of severity, but in all cases, affects movement and speech. CP children typically receive physical and occupational therapy and will make subtle improvements with age, as their bodies develop. In the double blind clinical trial in which some children were given a placebo and others were given varying amounts of stem cells, those who received approximately 25 million cells per kilogram of body weight showed substantial improvement in motor skills when tested a year following the treatment. The improvement was significant when compared to the expected normal yearly improvement CP children typically make, and was also greater than that of the children who received the smaller dosage. In the next phase of the clinical trial, researchers seek to determine whether continuous stem cell infusions could improve motor function even more significantly.
A study at the University of Illinois found that stem cell injections can promote angiogenesis, or blood vessel generation, which improves the circulation problems associated with diabetes. The condition in question is peripheral artery disease or PAD, in which patients suffer from restricted blood flow caused by plaque on the walls of the arteries; most typically in the leg. This is due in part to poor circulation in diabetic patients which can cause moderate to severe pain during any movement of the leg. It can also lead to ulcers, sores and, in severe cases, gangrene, which can lead to amputation. In an animal model, stem cell injections were shown to improve blood flow and circulation in problematic areas. They also altered the gene expression of surrounding cells to reduce inflammation, which typically exacerbates the problem. PAD currently lacks effective treatments options and is difficult to diagnose until it has progressed severely hence, the study points to a potential breakthrough therapy that utilizes the patient’s own stem cells.
Researchers at Harvard Medical School have utilized stem cells to grow a functional small intestine in a lab. Using human stem cells, the researchers were able to differentiate them into intestinal cells and induced them to form a fully functional intestinal tissue. Previous studies have been successful at growing miniscule segments of the organ, but this innovative study has homed in on a method for compiling smaller, stem cell-derived tissue into an organoid that could soon be available to use in transplants as replacement for damaged organs. Patients who suffer from gastrointestinal tract ailments could benefit from this, in addition to patients who have had portions of their digestive tracts removed due to cancer.
Sanford Health is heading into the second phase of clinical trials involving autologous (the patient’s own) stem cells to treat non-healing wounds and ulcers on the body. The trial will be recruiting patients 18 and older to continue testing the efficacy of stem cells in treating wounds that would not heal due to a person’s preexisting conditions. People with weakened immune systems could also benefit from this treatment, given that it would prevent the enormous risk of infection that non-healing wounds pose. Additionally, the treatment could even be applied to heal wounds from surgeries, expediting recovery time dramatically.
Phase III clinical trials for a stem cell based ALS treatment has been initiated. ALS, or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, is a disorder in which motor neurons in the body rapidly degenerate, and the treatment aims to prolong the survival rate of afflicted individuals by using autologous [the patient’s own] mesenchymal stem cells (the same stem cells found in teeth), which can be differentiated into fully-functioning neurons. The trials, to be conducted by BrainStorm Therapeutics, exploits the company’s proprietary technology [NurOwn], which utilizes mesenchymal stem cells. BrainStorm obtains these cells from the patient, expanding and differentiating the stem cells prior to application. The stem cells begin producing neurotrophic factors that facilitate neuronal growth and regeneration.
Researchers in India have used an autologous stem cell treatment in a pilot pre-clinical study to completely reverse the adverse effects of a quickly progressing case of MS (multiple sclerosis). MS is an autoimmune disorder in which the body attacks its own nervous system by breaking down the myelin sheath on neurons. Proper myelination is responsible for faster transmission of nerve signals and aggressive forms of MS cause patients to lose motor functions in their limbs, as well as experience memory and cognition problems. The patient in this study was experiencing a particularly degenerative form of MS, with multiple relapses over the years, and he began losing his ability to walk. After receiving an injection of his own mesenchymal stem cells (the same type of stem cells found in teeth), as well as a monitored diet and physical therapy, the patient experienced immediate improvement. He was soon able to walk and even run again, which he had been unable to do for over five years.